Saturday, 15 April 2017

Extremely New Objects Found At The End Of Solar System; May Be Planet Nine!

The presence of a mysterious ninth planet in our Solar System is still contentious, but the search for it has led researchers to discover more and new objects far beyond the orbit of Neptune. US astronomers Scott Sheppard, Chadwick Trujillo, and David Tholen have witnessed numerous trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) while conducting the biggest, deepest survey of the remote Solar System.
Artist's Opinion of Planet Nine.

Between the new discoveries, there is 2014 FE72.The first distant object whose orbit lies totally beyond Neptune. The object stretches very far from the midpoint of the Solar System, 3,000 times the Earth-Sun distance. It is so far away that gravity from other stars and the enormous tides cause its movement.

US astronomers Scott Sheppard from the Carnegie Institution for Science said in a statement, "Objects found far beyond Neptune hold the key to unlocking our Solar System’s origins and evolution. Though we believe there are thousands of these small objects, we have not found every one of them yet, because they are so far away. The smaller objects can lead us to the much bigger planet we think exists out there. The more we discover, the better we will be able to understand what is going on in the outer Solar System."

Most of the trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) appear to be grouping in a certain direction, which has directed scientists to guess about the presence of a large planet, up to 15 times the mass of Earth, whose gravity is pushing maximum smaller objects discovered in a certain region. This movement seems so well established that it was reasonably astonishing for the scientists to find one object, 2013 FT28, which does not totally match with the others. It is seems directing in the same direction of Planet Nine.
 Image shows the orbits of the new and previously known extremely distant Solar System objects. The clustering of most of these TNOs' orbits indicates that there could be a very large and very distant undiscovered planet. Robin Dienel.

Though the grouping movement appears to be weaker in this paper, acknowledged for publication in The Astrophysical Journal, the scientists think we still do not know much to make confident statements about the presence of Planet Nine.

Sheppard added "Right now we are dealing with very low-number statistics, so we do not truly understand what is happening in the outer Solar System. Greater numbers of extreme trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) must be found to fully define the structure of our outer Solar System. We are now in a same situation as in the mid-19th century when Alexis Bouvard noticed Uranus’ orbital motion was peculiar, which eventually directed to the discovery of Neptune."

The Solar System- Definition and Info

The appropriate definition of a solar system can be:- "Collection of planets revolving around a star. In our solar system, there are eight planets, Sun and many other bodies revolving around Sun."The Solar System is consists of all the eight planets that circle our Sun. In addition to these eight planets, the Solar System also contains comets, moons, minor planets, asteroids, gas, and dust.
Image credit: Dr. Steuard Jensen

Everything that we can observe with or without the telescope in the Solar System orbits the Sun. In our Solar System, the Sun covers almost 98% of all the material. It is the universal law that the larger an object is, the more gravity it will have. Because the Sun is very large and massive, its dominant gravity draws all the other things in our Solar System towards it. During this pull of sun's gravity, all these things in our solar system, that are moving very rapidly, also attempt to glide away from the Sun outward into the desolation of external space. The outcome of the planets demanding to fly away, at the same time that the Sun's gravity is trying to tug them inward is that they get stuck half-way in between the sun and outer space and starts orbiting the sun and does not fall into the sun or gets out of the range of sun’s gravity. So they spend all time circling around their parental star in the case of our solar system it is the sun.

You might have heard about the Asteroid Belt. This is actually a band of asteroids that lies among the orbits of the planet Jupiter and Mars. It is consists of thousands of objects and these objects are too small to be considered as planets. Few of them no bigger than just a particle of dust, while there are some others, like Eros that can be larger in size more than even 100 miles across. A few of these asteroids, like Ida, even have their own moons.

If you go further than Gas giants, outside the orbit of the Dwarf planet Pluto, there is another belt that consists of icy bodies and known as the Kuiper Belt. Just like the Asteroid Belt, the Kuiper Belt is also consisting of thousands, maybe even millions of objects, which are too small to be considered as planets.

These objects in Kuiper belt and Oort cloud are made up of generally ice-covered gas with small quantities of dust. They are sometimes also known as dirty snowballs. Though you maybe know them by their additional name and that is comets.

What is a Nebula?-Formation and Info

Before the man started fireworks in the night sky on Independence Day or at New Year; our universe had shown many fireworks of its own and no doubt they were more powerful than we can even think of.  In 1054 there was a huge explosion and it sure was the violent death of a star and the star was 10 times more massive than our sun. It was the outstanding eruption of a supernova. Chinese astronomers for the first time in history saw and recorded the star's death. The remains of this exploded star were later named as the Crab Nebula. The Crab Nebula is cloudy, glowing mass of gas and dust and it is about 7000 light years away from us. There was a star so bright that people saw it in the sky during the day for almost a month. The Chinese called it “the Guest Star”. Astronomers have viewed only two equal disasters in our Galaxy: the supernova explosions of 1572 and 1604.
A nebula is actually a bunch of molecules and atoms, floating in space like a dust cloud. More than one nebula are called nebulae. Nebula means cloud in Latin. The first Nebula formed after the Big Bang was 15 billion years ago. All forms of installer matter in the Milky Way Galaxy are Nebulae so far observed. Nebulae are mostly composed of hydrogen and other constituents are helium, oxygen, carbon, neon, and nitrogen.

On the basis of looks of nebulae, they are divided into two clear categories; Dark Nebulae and Bright Nebulae. Dark nebulae seem as on an irregular basis formed black patches in the sky and blot out the light of the stars that lie on the far side them. On the other hand, bright nebulae are very luminous and their brightness is mostly because they not just only emit their own light but also reflect light of nearby stars. Dark Nebula is a type of installer cloud and so dense that it obscures the light of background stars. The reason behind these phenomena’s is its internal dust grains and act like an opaque object.

Bright nebulae are also interstellar clouds of dust and gas where stars mostly are born and have died. Their rich colors and complex shapes made them interesting field for many amateur astronomers. Bright nebulae are also known as diffuse or Galactic nebulae. Planetary nebulae are common. A planetary nebula is kind of emission nebula and consists of a very shiny and glowing shell. This glowing shell of a planetary nebula made of ionized gas usually ejected by red old giants. At the end of the star’s life mostly at red giants phase; the outer layers of the star are ejected through strong stellar winds. The exposed hot, glowing core produces ultraviolet radiation that ionizes the ejected outer layers of the star and it appears as a Planetary Nebula.

Black Holes- Facts and Info

History of the term Black hole is quite interesting. In 1687 Sir Isaac Newton first described the term gravity in his publication “Principia”. We all know that gravity of black hole gives nightmare to scientists. In 1783 John Michell predicted that there might exist an object whose escape velocity is more than the speed of light. Albert Einstein predicted the space-time curvature in his theory of Relativity in 1915. In 1916 Karl Schwarzschild's using Einstein’s theory of relativity explained Blackhole and also defined the gravitational radius of a black hole, which afterward called as Schwarzchild radius. After that, black hole theory was strongly opposed unless John Wheeler came in and coined the term Black hole again. In 1964 neutron stars were discovered and in 1970 Stephen Hawking described the black hole briefly. In 1994 Hubble telescope provided the best evidence of supermassive black holes.
Image Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

Black holes are the most interesting objects in the universe. A black hole is, in fact, a large amount of matter packed into a small area. Nothing can escape from the black hole, not even light. The formation of a black hole is quite interesting phenomena. The formation of the black hole takes place when any object reaches a critical amount of density and its gravity causes to collapse to a small point. There are two types of black holes, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes. Stellar black holes are mostly formed when a star less 100 times to that of the sun’s mass collapses. In reality, an end of a star is a beginning of a black hole. If a star is massive as three times the mass of the sun than theoretically it can be proved that no force can save a star from collapsing under its own gravity. In the case of our sun, the chances of forming a black hole are none because our sun’s mass does not fulfill the criteria. Stellar black holes are formed by an explosion. When a star runs out of fuel then it collapses and forms a supernova and remaining matter forms a black hole.

In the case of Super Massive Hole we are not quite sure what causes the formation of a super massive black hole, but it is pretty sure that super massive black holes are more massive than a stellar black hole. Some say that a group of stellar black hole together after merging makes super massive black holes. One possibility is that in early ages of the universe some stellar black holes are formed and with time they are transformed to a super massive black hole.

Scientists think that there is no middle category of a black hole, but recent indications from Chandra, XMM-Newton and Hubble are giving strength to a middle category of Black holes. Around 20 X-ray binary systems that are thought to contain stellar black holes have been discovered and this number continues to increase the sensitivity of tool advances. The Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland that may reach energies high enough to create tiny black holes.

Planets-Definition and Facts

If you look throughout the history for the definition of what really a planet has actually changed always with time and meant different things at the same moment depending on what kind of person was defining it. Now we all know about Ceres because of advanced technology and telescopes. Ceres was discovered in 1801 and was in start thought to be a planet like our home Earth and other known planets of our solar system until astronomer discovered another heavy body in space named "Pallas" that has a similar orbit which affected their thought about Ceres. Astronomers of that time, even using the available technology of their time, were somehow able to tell that these objects were not actually planets. The famous astronomer of that time Sir William Herschel suggested the name "asteroids" for this kind of bodies in space and which got stuck with time.Asteroids at that time were then accepted as a totally distinct category of bodies in space.
A few years ago, you might have said that a planet can be defined as one of the nine large and heavy celestial bodies that orbit the Sun. However, with new technology, which also made the discovery of many other new celestial bodies in various regions of our solar system, such as the Kuiper Belt, also created problems for astronomers like determining "what a planet is" a little more difficult. While many of astronomers suggested various definitions for the term planets over the years but unfortunately none of them were widely accepted by other astronomers.

The issue of defining what planet is when came to a head in 2005 when an object even larger than Pluto was discovered far beyond the Kuiper Belt by astronomers. This object, which is now known as Eris, was a source of division among many astronomers. Some astronomers wanted Eris to be the part of our solar system as a tenth planet while others just considered it to be just another asteroid like many others in Kuiper belt, despite the fact that it is larger than Pluto is. The International Astronomical Union (IAU), which usually resolves problems and issues like this, met in 2005 at a conference, but instead of debating and resolving this issue, they did not come up with any agreement upon the definition of a planet. After the conference of 2005, the matter was resumed in summer of 2006 again at the next IAU conference.

In August 2006, the IAU finally agreed in conference upon a definition for “what actually a planet is”. The IAU’s official definition for defining a planet now is:-

“A planet is a celestial body that (1) is orbiting the Sun, (b) and it must have sufficient mass for its self-gravity in order to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a definite hydro-static equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (c) must has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.”

An object that has cleared the path of its orbit and neighborhood of its orbit and it is of sufficient size in order to retain its nearly round shape with the help of self-gravity. While defining “what a planet is”, the IAU also created a new category for some bodies orbiting the Sun as a “dwarf planets”, after which Pluto was categorized as a dwarf planet. Eris and several other objects were also categorized as a dwarf planet depending on their characteristics. The definition has had severe opposition since, especially with many people and astronomers angry at the demotion of Pluto (Which actually does not matter at all).