If you want to put every discovery in the field of physics in the last, let say, some thousand years in a small table then you can do that. You can put everything of nature into four fundamental forces. These four fundamental forces are Gravity, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force, and electromagnetism. The question here is “is that it? Just four forces? Is there any fifth force?” A force that can be measured beyond the laboratory would be the fifth force, but so far no one has found it yet. There are some physicists who looked for the fifth force very carefully. Some think its Telepathy or power of the mind. In physics, theories are tested in two ways. A theory must be Falsifiable and Reproducible.
Image credit: hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu.
Any theory in physics should work every single time on demand without any exception. A theory must work everywhere. If any theory fails even once than it is wrong. Einstein’s theory has to work every single time without exception. If Einstein’s theory is proven to be wrong even one time, then the whole theory is wrong. So believe in physics because everything in physics has been tested with great precautions.
So a far we can reproduce four physical theories (as mentioned above) and there is no fifth theory discovered so far. In last 20 years, physicists found a large energy source, even larger than a galaxy. Which is Dark Energy? 73% of the known universe is in the form of dark energy. It is the energy of nothing. This dark energy is actually blowing the galaxies farther and farther apart. It is the energy of the Big Bang itself. So the answer to the question “what forced the Big Bang” is Dark Energy. 23% of the known universe is Dark Matter. Dark Matter is everywhere around you and around me. It is actually the invisible form of Matter. Dark Matter holds the Galaxy together. Stars are made of hydrogen and helium and they cover 4% of the whole known universe. Where are we? We are actually made of higher and complex elements. We are made of oxygen, Carbon, nitrogen and much more. We make up 0.03% of the whole known universe. According to these figures we are the exception in this universe. No one knows about Dark Matter and Dark Energy. String Theory gives a clue, but there is no definitive answer.
The next level of physics is now dark matter and dark energy. In last 20 years, physicists have come to know that the most of the universe is dark. The next list of the winners of Nobel Prize would be the ones, who will solve the mystery of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. So if you are a young student of Physics and are reading this article then learn as much as you can because maybe you can help in solving this unknown dark matter and dark energy.
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